How Baking Parameters Affect Cake Texture
In order to enhance the texture and taste of the product, the production process must be precise. The first step is to understand the 3 different steps that take place in the baking process and how they affect your product:
As soon as the product enters the oven, the expansion step begins and is the starting point for the final product volume.
The stabilization step, starting at 60°C (140°F), forms the final crumb structure and product shape (such as cracks on a muffin or in the form of a loaf cake).
The browning step, starting at 100°C (212°F), imparts color and thickness to the crust. As the water evaporates, it also affects the taste, softness and shelf life of the product.
During these three steps, the way the heat is transferred to the product also affects the final properties. There are 3 types of heat transfer:
Conducted energy: transmitted to the product by contact. When baking on a conveyor belt, energy is either delivered immediately to the bottom of the product, or delayed while baking on a rack. This delay depends on the material and thickness of the support.
Convective Energy: Transferred between hot air and product and pan surfaces. Convection facilitates heat transfer to the product and provides uniform color. This works especially well for pans that are close to each other. It can also have a drying effect, depending on the humidity.
Radiant Energy: Propagated by electromagnetic waves that release heat upon impact on the contact surface. The effect is similar to that of a tan trace: only the surface in contact with the ray absorbs heat. It allows color contrasts according to the geometry of the product and its supports. This baking mode also preserves the softness of the product.